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Material Science - Introduction

Syllabus (GATE ME)

  • Structure and Properties of Engineering Materials

  • Phase Diagrams

  • Heat Treatment of Materials

  • Stress Strain Diagram

Structure & Properties of Materials

Property of material depends on its structure and processing

Structure - How the atoms/molecules are arranged

Property - Performance in an engineering application in given condition

Properties are categories as:

  • Mechanical Properties

  • Electrical Properties

  • Thermal Properties

  • Optical Properties etc.

Why Material Properties are important

To select a suitable material for a given application.

Suppose we want to design a cryogenic engine. Requirement of material for this application are:

•Light Weight

•Compatibility with Fuel and Oxidizer

•Strength and Ductility at Cryogenic Temperature

Hence to choose a suitable material for this engine property data is critical.

Material Categories

Metals - Characterized by free electrons. Good thermal and electrical conductivity. Example: Al, Steel, Titanium etc.

Ceramics - Compound between metallic and non-metallic elements mostly oxides, carbides and nitrides. Typically insulator to heat and electricity. Hard but very brittle and maintains strength at high temperature.

Polymers - Long chain organic compounds such as plastics and rubber. Low density and extremely flexible

Composite - Composite is a combination of two material types and exhibits best characteristics from both of its constituent materials. Example - Fiberglass

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